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Friday, May 13, 2005

"...مأزق الأديان.. بين " التخلى عن..." و "التوحد بـ

أصبح "التغير" هو الثابت الوحيد في دنيا اليوم و أصبحت ملاحقة وفهم المتغيرات الحادثة علي كل المستويات سياسياً و إجتماعياً و ثقافياُ و إقتصادياً من الصعوبة بمكان علي الجميع أفراداً و مؤسسات ، و في ظل هذة التغيرات العنيفة تواجه الأديان التقليدية خاصة المسيحية و الأسلام مأزقاً حاداً يتمثل في عجزها – الأديان- أو عجز من يتحدثون بإسمها عن ملاحقة تلك المتغيرات و تكوين تصور جديد للحياة و لعلاقة الإنسان بالله والأخر و الكون ، تصورشامل تنتظم فيه المتغيرات الجديدة و الأهم أن يكون هذا التصور من الدينامكية بما يمكنه من إستيعاب التغير بشكل يومي و إنتاج فقه أو لاهوت متجدد يستطيع إجابة أسئلة جديدة في غاية الصعوبة .مازالت الأديان غير قادرة علي تقديم رؤي واضحة لقضايا فجرتها ثورة الهندسة الوراثية و الإستنساخ ، قضايا وجودية و حياتية : الإجهاض و الرحم البديل و إختيار نوع و صفات الجنين .... لا أقصد هنا بالطبع تلك الإجابات الساذجة: حلالاً و حراماً ، إذا ما فوجئنا غداً بأول كائن بشري مستنسخ فستصبح مفاهيم مثل الحياة و الخلق والجنس و الزواج في حاجة إلى إعادة فهم ، سيأخذ الحديث عن حقوق المرأة منحي جديد و ربما نضطر لبدء الحديث عن حقوق الرجل!!
لم تقدم الأديان حتى الأن أطر قيمية قادرة أن تقف فى وجه عولمة متوحشة تزيد الأغنياء غني و تزيد الفقراء فقرا ً ، عولمة تكرس قيم الإستغلال و الإستهلاك و تشيئ البشر. لم تقدم الأديان أطر قيمية تنادى بالعدالة و تستطيع أن تقف فى وجه الظلم ، بل المحزن أن من يتحدثون بإسم الأديان الأن ربما يكونوا مشاركين في تكريس الظلم.
و زاد السياسيون مأزق الأديان حدة ، في الغرب بعد أن كان هناك حرص – على الأقل نظرياً – على الفصل التام بين ما هو دينى و ما هو سياسى جاء نظام المحافظين الجدد الأمريكى ليُظهر بشكل فج ما هو دينى(بروتستانتي كالفني) و يقدمه على أنه مكون أساسى من مكونات المشروع الإمبراطوري الأمريكى و إن كان هذا الصعود اللافت للنظر قد بدأ مع الحملة الإنتخابية لرونالد ريجان 1980 على حسب سمير مرقس في كتابه " الإمبراطورية الأمريكية .. ثلاثية الثروة و الدين و القوة "- مكتبة الشروق الدولية 2003 . و في منطقتنا يتداخل ما هو دينى مع ما هو سياسى فى علاقة ملتبسة و كان هذا الإلتباس "سبباً فى حالة التخلف التى رانت على المنطقة العربية و أقعدتها عن اللحاق بالنهضة و الإمساك بروح العصر" على حسب سلامة أحمد سلامة في مقاله " عولمة الأديان : تجديد البابوية و إمامة المرأة "- (وجهات نظر) العدد 76 مايو 2005 .و دعونا نأخذ مصر كمثال لهذا التداخل بين ما هو دينى و ما هو سياسى فأزعم أنه من الصعوبة الشديدة أن نفهم بشكل واف ما هي علاقة النظام السياسى بما هو دينى – مؤسسات و تيارات دينية ، و الأخطر هو تداخل الدين مع الدستور فالمادة الخاصة بأن الشريعة الإسلامية "المصدر الرئيسى" للتشريع تعطى فرصة لوجود دستور داخل الدستور فكل الأمور يمكن الجدل حول إتفاقها أو عدم إتفاقها مع الشريعة و سيحمل كل طرف أدلة شرعية تؤيد موقفه و بالتالى يحمل الدستور بهذة المادة ما يمكن أن ينقض دستورية مواد أخري بنفس الدستور إستناداً الى هذة الأدلة الشرعية أو تلك ، هذا التداخل لما هو ديني مع ما هو سياسى أراه يزيد أبعاد المأزق .
كل ما سبق هو ما صنع مأزقاً حقيقياً لكل دين مع أتباعه فأصبحنا نرى "إنصرافاً تاماً" عن ما هو دينى من شرائح متنوعة خاصة أجيال شابة لديها قدرة على التفكير النقدى ، لم تجد هذة الأجيال الأديان قادرة على مواكبة زمنهم و التحديات التى يواجهونها يومياً، أو على النقيض نرى " توحداً مريضاً" بما هو دينى من شرائح أخرى ترفض بتخلف كل ما هو جديد أو مختلف.
أظننا بحاجة إلى إجتهادات دينية جديدة للخروج من المأزق الحالى الذى يبدو أنه سيتفاقم فى المستقبل القريب ،إجتهادات قادرة على تلبية ذلك الجزء الروحانى داخل البشر بدون تحويله إلى "تابو" ، إجتهادات تستطيع أن تقف في وجه الظلم و الإستغلال و تشيئ البشر، إجتهادات تبشر بإنسانية الإنسان فى زمن أوشكت هذة الإنسانية أن تضيع.

4 Comments:

At 5/16/2005 9:24 PM, Blogger ChaösGnösis said...

This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

 
At 5/16/2005 11:14 PM, Blogger ChaösGnösis said...

Wa7ed.....I will start at the end of your statement:

Wa7ed said:"أظننا بحاجة إلى إجتهادات دينية جديدة للخروج من المأزق الحالى الذى يبدو أنه سيتفاقم فى المستقبل القريب ،إجتهادات قادرة على تلبية ذلك الجزء الروحانى داخل البشر بدون تحويله إلى "تابو" ، إجتهادات تستطيع أن تقف في وجه الظلم و الإستغلال و تشيئ البشر، إجتهادات تبشر بإنسانية الإنسان فى زمن أوشكت ...هذة الإنسانية أن تضيع"

Your closing statement puts everything in the right perspective (although I have few reservations about some parts of it)....It is about the HUMANISM of our HUMANITY....( much more profound when uttered in Arabic.." Ansannat al Ensan.."..

I agree with you whole-heartedly about that point.

I believe the past two centuries in human history have been exactly about that new emerging paradigm (or syntagm to be more precise): how to reconcile the needs, aspirations and evolving understanding of human's place in the universe with the a critical part of our human heritage; i.e. religions. In this regard, it is safe to say that the Abrahamic traditions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) has had more difficulty with that process than other world religions.

The process of separating the quintessential spiritual needs of humans from the historical accumulations of "religious" understandings, interpretations and dogmatic petrification of the relationship between the human and the divine....the sacred and the secular...Europe had gone through its own painful process of separation between "church and state", which is clearly not over yet, and I believe will remain a central issues in human affairs for a time to come.

The Arabs (and Muslims in general) have begun that process much later for many historical reasons, some of which are external, and most are internal to the Arab mind and Arab consciousness.

I suppose it is clearly an oversimplification to reduce the issue to that tired concept of "separation of church and state" or Politics and religion, especially in the case of the Islamic and the Arab conditions in which it does not apply exactly in the way it does in the European or Western model.

Although "true" Islam and Christianity may agree on many moral issues, the European and Arab historical experiences vary tremendously. In my opinion, your statement about the "....Change ,as the only fixed condition.." in the current state of human affairs, should be : change has been, throughout history, the essential constant factor in human affairs.

It is only recently that our awareness of CHANGE has become immediate and simultaneous. That, my friend, brings us to the point of Globalization: I beg to differ with you about your portrayal of that phenomenon as"....cruel globalization.." "..لم تقدم الأديان حتى الأن أطر قيمية قادرة أن تقف فى وجه عولمة متوحشة تزيد الأغنياء غني و تزيد الفقراء فقرا ً ، عولمة تكرس قيم الإستغلال و الإستهلاك و تشيئ البشر...."
Your usual level of accuracy and clear and thorough analysis of issues makes it more necessary for me to stop at this point and elaborate in some detail. ......Bashing globalization has become a sport and a popular trend. But it is precisely that this unstoppable phenomenon that makes the process of "ansannat al ensan" (humanizing humanity) more and more readily available to the largest segment of our human race. I think we need to be careful and not "throw the baby with the bath water". Indeed my friend there are SOME negative aspects of globalization, like all other phenomena of CHANGE and human cultural evolution. yes there are some aspects of Globalization when misused and abused by multi-national corporations, can lead to (and have led to) exploitation and economic injustice. But...and here is the big BUT...we cannot practice a wholesale condemnation of this phenomenon. Globalization and the Information Revolution are inseparable phenomena.

That very tool that we are both using now to exchange our views is nothing but a direct result of the globalization of communication tools and the globalization of access to information. Globalization is the natural historical step of Modernism. I use the term of Modernism in its philosophical and sociological wider sense (not in its limited technical sense).

The past two centuries have been characterized by the extend with which one culture or another were capable of "enduring" that phenomenon of modernism. "Enduring Modernism", as in: a culture's capacity to endure the hardships of.....and "Modernism" that is, inexorably, "Enduring". That my friend is at the crux of the matter, and is applicable to your intelligent statements about the inevitability of change.

The Arabs have been struggling with for quite some time and since the rude awakening of the French / Napoleonic Expedition to Egypt.

In coming face to face with universal Humanist values, albeit being commingled with clear colonialist aspirations and schemes. It is very interesting to observe that the current debate about Fundamentals of Islam and the spirit of the age was very similar to the sociopolitical debates that engulfed Egypt after the French Expedition. Although, under very different International "order" and very different regional and local political realities, but the essentials of the debates were similar to those we are still witnessing today.

Even the issue of "Sharia'a and Constitution" that you just raised, is not entirely new and I agree with you totally about it being "a constitution inside a constitution". I also agree with the need to fulfill that which is "spiritual" in our humanness, but clearly without having to confuse spirituality and dogma.

I salute you my friend for putting your finger on the essential predicament of our fellow human beings, especially in the Arab world.

 
At 5/18/2005 7:46 PM, Blogger wa7ed mn masr said...

Dear Chaosgnosis:
as usual your comments are deep and debatable , so I don’t know from to start , I’ll not talk again about the points we agree about ( although some divergences in viewpoints)

I’ll go to the issue of Globalization, what I was talking about in the post was the role of religions to stand against the VALUES that the globalization presents and which directly affect the “Humanity of humans” , I mean here the moral values.
You say “bashing globalization has become a sport and a popular trend” that might be true, but also you know, for sure, that on the intellectuals level this trend is also in attendance , so talking about globalization in the same way like “END OF HISTORY” ,Francis Fukuyama /American “MISSION” is not endurable to me .
Globalization is the evolution of “Capitalism” started since the 15th century in Europe , I’m working already in a trans-national corporation so now I’m part of the game , we all use the modern technology which was developed to serve this process of evolution but that does not mean again I can accept the “VALUES” , for sure you know about that expected scenario of having a societies of wealthy one fifth and extremely poor 4/5
( “Globalization trap” , Hans- peter Martin ,Harald Schumann . Rowohlt Verlag GmbH, Germany 1996)
so dear friend
أنا ضد "الأنبهار التام" و أيضاً ضد "الرفض المتخلف"ه
One of my dreams is to be able one day to make a valuable contribution on how to make this phenomenon having a humanitarian face that I feel it is deficient in today

 
At 5/20/2005 9:46 AM, Blogger ChaösGnösis said...

Wa7ed…..
It seems to me that we agree more than we disagree on this point of globalization. It is my quest too, to uncover and unmask the "HUMANIST" face of Globalization. I use Globalization or Globalism as, almost, synonymous with Universalism, while you tend to stick to its economic dimensions and ramifications. We may (in part) be having a problem of definitions and semantics.

As you mentioned Francis Fukuyama's famous (or infamous) book, and in the hope of making my point clearer, I am compelled to quote from another much more interesting and penetrating French intellectual, Paul Virilio.

In his concise book, "the Information Bomb" (Verso, 2000), Virilio asserts:
"…We can scarcely avoid the question today of what is meant by the endlessly repeated word GLOBALIZATION. Is this a term intended to take over from the word INTERNATIONALISM, associated too closely with communism, or, as is often claimed, is it a reference to single-market capitalism? Either answer is wide off the mark. After the 'end of history', prematurely announced [….] by Francis Fukuyama, what is being revealed here are the beginnings of the ' END OF SPACE' of a small planet held in suspension in the electronic ether of our modern means of telecommunication…

Virilio goes on to explain: "…WE are not seeing the ' end of history', but we are seeing an END OF GEOGRAPHY"

Towards the end of his argument, Virilio invokes Daniel Halévy's 1948 important essay: Essai sur L'accélération de L'histoire, in which Halévy laid down a prophetic vision of our world today. He critically contrasts the thesis of 'ACCELERATION OF HISTORY' with Fukuyama's 'END OF HISTORY' and exposes the shortsightedness and Eurocentricity (or better yet Americocentricity) of Fukuyama's argument.

It is curious how fast the tables are turning and how the capitalist centers of the world are complaining about "outsourcing" and unfair practices by the "developing" world. I think even the ugly face of globalization is reversing in some cases.

I believe this phenomenon is not only marking the 'end of geography', but that it is not entirely new in history. A close reading of Ibn Khaldun's Muqademmah reveals something very close to Globalization, in this case having been practiced by the Islamic Khelafah (or empire). Ibn Khaldun clearly alluded to the attempts of all "superpowers" of any given time in history to "dominate" and impose their agendas and value system on the rest of the world through exercising tight controls over lines of communications and trade routes and commerce.

That process was, and still is, a natural and inevitable part of human history. The question has always been: how equitable and "just" those practices and strategies of manipulations have been? What is so different now, is that the rate of change and 'acceleration' is so rapid, that we tend to condemn what is only a natural evolution of historical forces.

And yes my friend, we should all dream of that world of a Humanistic Globe. But that can be achieved only through "facing" the reality of our age and embrace the "Global Village" as a phenomenon that is here to stay. The more we resist it and condemn it, the slower the potential of that equitable and just world will become.

Sorry for the long comment, but it is your fault after all. Who told you to blog intelligently? Here is what you get my friend!

 

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